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Pan-African Network for economic Analysis of Policies

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What is PANAP?

The Pan-African Network for economic Analysis of Policies brings together academic, research and institutional partners that develop research on agro-economics and policy issues. 

It was established in 2019 under the aegis of the African Union (AU) - European Union (EU) partnership.


Our mission

PANAP aims to strengthen the liaison between researchers/scientists and policymakers in Africa, and to stimulate their cooperation on selected topics linked to policy priorities that reinforce the stability of African agriculture and food sectors.


About this website

Currently hosted within the pages of the Data/Modelling platform of resource economics of the European Commission, this website works as complete and up-to-dated reference of the network's activities. Find here the involved partners, the events, the documents, the news, the scientific publications, the economic modelling tools, and a repository of all the open datasets.


Our navigator allows in alternative to surf through these hundreds of resources by country, year or model.

Data and dashboards

Country dashboards

A one-stop-shop infographics combining data from scattered sources on food/nutrition security and macroeconomics and agro-economics indicators for countries where food security and sustainable agriculture are focal sectors for EU intervention.
Published: 13/06/2019 | Updated: 10/01/2022

Jobs calculator

What happens to employment if exports change? Try this interactive tool to simulate the effects of demand changes on jobs. Tool based on the Social Accounting Matrices. Simulation available for 30+ countries, including all EU, the UK, and some Africans.
Published: 09/04/2019 | Updated: 30/07/2021

PANAP Navigator

Tableaux de bord pour naviguer parmi les contenues du réseau panafricain pour l'analyse économique des politiques - Control board to navigate through the contents of the Pan-African Network for economic Analysis of Policies
Published: 06/09/2020

Potential effects of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) on African agri-food sectors and food security

This report complements previous continental economy-wide assessments of the impacts of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) by providing a more comprehensive description of the trade agreement’s effects on food systems and food security.
Published: 24/11/2021

SAM - Ghana - 2015

Social Accounting Matrix for Ghana for 2015, estimated by JRC (2021)
Published: 31/05/2021

SAM - Ethiopia - 2015/16

Social Accounting Matrix for Ethiopia for 2015/16, estimated by JRC (2020)
Published: 08/01/2020

RJOC - Ethiopia

Study that provides quantitative evidences supporting policy options for the Rural Job Opportunity Creation Strategy (RJOCS) in Ethiopia
Published: 26/11/2019

Food Price Crowdsourcing Africa

“Food Price Crowdsourcing Africa” (FPCA) is a research project for understanding food price changes along the food chain while strengthening agricultural and market information systems through mobile phone technology and citizens' participation.
Published: 12/03/2019 | Updated: 23/07/2019

Plan Sénégal Emergent 2019-2023

Arguments scientifiques à l'appui d'options politiques en faveur du secteur agricole pour la deuxième phase du Plan Sénégal Emergent (PSE) et de son Plan d'Actions Prioritaires (PAP) en 2019-2023.
Published: 26/02/2019

ASGTS - Kenya

Study (JRC & FAO-MAFAP, 2018) to explore ex-ante socioeconomic impacts of alternative agricultural policies, driving to development options recommended to support the final decision of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (MoALF) of Kenya
Published: 26/06/2018


  • Potential effects of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) on African agri-food sectors and food security

    Year: 2021

    Authors: Simola, A; Boysen, O; Ferrari, E; Nechifor, V; Boulanger, P

    Journal: Publications Office of the European Union

    Abstract: The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement, which entered into force at the beginning of 2021, aims to boost intra-African trade and to accelerate economic development on the continent. This report complements previous continental economy-wide assessments of the impacts of the AfCFTA by providing a more comprehensive description of the trade agreement’s effects on food systems and food security. The report employs a global, multiregional model to determine the trade creation and diversion effects of four liberalisation scenarios defined by various policy objectives. The main findings show that the trade agreement will be a positive contributor both to economic growth through higher value added production and to trade diversification. Food consumption across the continent will also increase. A coordinated liberalisation approach to promote trade in agri-food products will further boost food security outcomes. Nevertheless, food prices will increase slightly in most regions, showing the need for further consideration of food affordability aspects in lower-income groups. Results also highlight the importance of non-tariff measures and the capacity of the AfCFTA to reduce the non-tariff costs of intra-African trade.

  • Analysis of the Kenyan economy: an input-output approach

    Year: 2021

    Authors: Jiménez-Calvo, S; Mainar-Causapé, AJ; Ferrari, E

    Journal: Agrekon - Agricultural Economics Research, Policy and Practice in Southern Africa

    Abstract: Since the beginning of the 2008 economic crisis, economic growth and development have been in the forefront of economic research. In a global context, the highest levels of poverty as well as malnutrition problems are found in sub-Saharan African countries. Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs) are useful tools to describe the economic situation of these countries, the interactions among economic agents and to support policymakers in implementing their policies. The paper shows the macro- and micro-economic indicators of Kenya, which can be directly extracted from the described SAM 2017 for Kenya The analysis of the SAM multipliers shows that agri-food multipliers are in general above the average reflecting the strength of backward and forward linkages of Kenya’s economy.

  • Do agri-food market incentives improve food security and nutrition indicators? a microsimulation evaluation for Kenya

    Year: 2021

    Authors: Ramos, MP; Custodio-Cerezales, E; Jiménez-Calvo, S; Mainar-Causapé, AJ; Boulanger, P; Ferrari, E

    Journal: Food Security

    Abstract: The sustainable development goal #2 aims at ending hunger and malnutrition by 2030. Given the numbers of food insecure and malnourished people on the rise, the heterogeneity of nutritional statuses and needs, and the even worse context of COVID-19 pandemic, this has become an urgent challenge for food-related policies. This paper provides a comprehensive microsimulation approach to evaluate economic policies on food access, sufficiency (energy) and adequacy (protein, fat, carbohydrate) at household level. The improvement in market access conditions in Kenya is simulated as an application case of this method, using original insights from households’ surveys and biochemical and nutritional information by food item. Simulation’s results suggest that improving market access increases food purchasing power overall the country, with a pro-poor impact in rural areas. The daily energy consumption per capita and macronutrients intakes per capita increase at the national level, being the households with at least one stunted child under 5 years old, and poor households living areas outside Mombasa and Nairobi, those which benefit the most. The developed method and its Kenya's application contribute to the discussion on how to evaluate nutrition-sensitive policies, and how to cover most households suffering food insecurity and nutrition deficiencies in any given country.

  • Impacts of the Cocoa Living Income Differential Policy in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire

    Year: 2021

    Authors: Boysen, O; Ferrari, E; Nechifor, V; Tillie, P

    Journal: Publications Office of the European Union

    Abstract: Poverty continues to be a widespread issue among cocoa farmers while chocolate consumers become increasingly sensitive for the sustainability issues associated with the supply chain. The poverty issue is often attributed to the low prices of cocoa and the unequal distribution of profit margins across the chocolate value chain, at least partially. Poverty, in turn, is considered to be the root of further sustainability issues. To raise the value share and price accruing to their farmers by leveraging their collective market power, the two biggest cocoa producing countries Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana jointly announced in 2019 the cocoa Living Income Differential (LID) policy. The question is to what extent and under which circumstances could the policy reach this goal in the long run, considering the numerous unknowns around the details of the policy and market actors’ reactions, and how sustainable it is. To analyse this question, we implement a global multi-regional partial equilibrium model of the world cocoa market to simulate scenarios accounting for alternative assumptions about these unknowns. The study shows that the LID’s effects on prices and welfare of cocoa farmers in the two countries range from none to substantially positive, varying in magnitude with the scenarios. But it also highlights that the farmgate price target, which is reached in Ghana under most scenarios, is reached in Côte d’Ivoire only with additional supply management measures. The two countries’ government budgets and cocoa farmers in other countries lose out substantially in many cases, what is identified, among other issues, as potential threats to the sustainability of the policy that require attention. Evaluated in light of past attempts by governments and other actors to raise farmer welfare in the cocoa but also other agricultural sectors, one policy alternative stands out, although coming with its own challenges.

  • Social Accounting Matrix for Côte d'Ivoire 2015

    Year: 2021

    Authors: Ferreira, V; Almazán-Gómez, M.A.; Nechifor, V; Ferrari, E; Diallo, SS

    Journal: Publications Office of the European Union

    Abstract: A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is a comprehensive and economy-wide database recording data on all transactions that take place in an economy over a period of time, usually one year. It has two principal objectives. On the one hand, it presents a complete picture of the economy, taking into account the economy's structure and the interrelationships between economic agents. On the other hand, it provides a coherent framework to analyse how the economy works and to predict the effects of policy interventions through its use as a database in multisectoral linear models by calculating multipliers, and in the calibration and exploitation of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. This report presents the Côte d’Ivoire's SAM for 2015, with the main purpose of providing a suitable database for implementing and evaluating the country's own developmental social and economic policies and initiatives. For this purpose, the basic structure of a SAM is presented, explaining the meaning of each account. Then, the accounts included in the SAM of Cote d'Ivoire are explained in detail covering the main aspects of its construction and estimation. This SAM has the advantage of including the Household Production for Household Consumption (HPHC) approach and a high disaggregation of the agricultural and food sector, which is very important for an economy like the Ivorian case. Finally, the SAM is used as a database to perform a descriptive analysis of the Ivorian economy and to obtain results of employment, output and value added multipliers with the application of linear multiplier analysis. Annex 2 explains how to download the matrix available online.

  • Social Accounting Matrix for Ghana 2015

    Year: 2021

    Authors: Ferreira, V; Almazán-Gómez, M.A.; Nechifor, V; Ferrari, E

    Journal: Publications Office of the European Union

    Abstract: A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is a comprehensive and economy-wide database recording data on all transactions between production activities, factors of production, institutions, and the rest of the world within a specific economy during a certain period. It has two principal objectives. First, it represents a complete snapshot of the economy showing the economic structure and the circular flow of income and expenditure in the country or region under analysis. Second, in order to analyse how the economy works and to predict the effects of policy interventions, it is used as a database in multisectoral linear models by calculating multipliers, and for the calibration and exploitation of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. This report presents Ghana's SAM for 2015, with the main purpose of providing a suitable database for implementing and evaluating the country's own developmental, social and economic policies and initiatives. To this end, the structure of the SAM is presented in detail, explaining the meaning of each account and indicating some estimations and modifications made. Considering the characteristics of the Ghanaian economy, this SAM shows a special structure to reflect the Home Production for Home Consumption (HPHC) issue and a high disaggregation of the agricultural and food sector. Furthermore, considering the SAM as a database, a descriptive analysis of the Ghanaian economy and the linear multipliers analysis are presented. Annex 2 explains how to download the matrix available online.

  • Using crowd-sourced data for real-time monitoring of food prices during the COVID-19 pandemic: Insights from a pilot project in northern Nigeria

    Year: 2021

    Authors: Adewopo, J; Solano-Hermosilla, G; Colen, L; Micale, F

    Journal: Global Food Security

    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdown measures have disrupted food supply chains globally and caused threats to food security, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet detailed, localized, and timely data on food security threats are rarely available to guide targeted policy interventions. Based on real-time evidence from a pilot project in northern Nigeria, where food insecurity is severe, we illustrate how a digital crowdsourcing platform can provide validated real-time, high frequency, and spatially rich information on the evolution of commodity prices. Daily georeferenced price data of major food commodities were submitted by active volunteer citizens through a mobile phone data collection app and filtered through a stepwise quality control algorithm. We analyzed a total of 23,961 spatially distributed datapoints, contributed by 236 active volunteers, on the price of four commodities (local rice, Thailand rice, white maize and yellow maize) to assess the magnitude of price change over eleven weeks (week 20 to week 30) during and after the first COVID-related lockdown (year 2020), relative to the preceding year (2019). Results show that the retail price of maize (yellow and white) and rice (local and Thailand rice) increased on average by respectively 26% and 44% during this COVID-related period, compared to prices reported in the same period in 2019. GPS-tracked data showed that mobility and market access of active volunteers were reduced, travel-distance to market being 54% less in 2020 compared to 2019, and illustrates potential limitations on consumers who often seek lower pricing by accessing broader markets. Combining the price data with a spatial richness index grid derived from UN-FAO, this study shows the viability of a contactless data crowdsourcing system, backed by an automated quality control process, as a decision-support tool for rapid assessment of price-induced food insecurity risks, and to target interventions (e.g. COVID relief support) at the right time and location(s).

  • Food security and welfare changes under COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa: Impacts and responses in Kenya

    Year: 2021

    Authors: Nechifor, V; Ramos, MP; Ferrari, E; Laichena, J; Kihiu, E; Omanyo, D; Musamali, R; Kiriga, B

    Journal: Global Food Security

    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all Sub-Saharan economies through a multitude of impact channels. The study determines the medium-term macroeconomic outcomes of the pandemic on the Kenyan economy and links the results with a detailed food security and nutrition microsimulation module. It thus evaluates the effectiveness of the adopted government measures to reduce the negative outcomes on food security and to enable economic recovery at aggregate, sectoral and household levels. Through income support measures, the food sector and food demand partially recover. However, 1.3% of households still fall below calorie intake thresholds, many of which are in rural areas. Results also indicate that the state of food security in Kenya remains vulnerable to the evolution of the pandemic abroad.

  • COVID-19: socioeconomic impacts and recovery in Ethiopia

    Year: 2020

    Authors: Nechifor, V; Boysen, O; Ferrari, E; Hailu, K; Beshir, M

    Journal: Publications Office of the European Union

    Abstract: This technical report assesses the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for the economic performance and poverty incidence in Ethiopia for 2019/20 and 2020/21. It takes into account the impacts of the pandemic on four channels: a) factor productivity, b) trade costs, c) export demand and tourism, and d) remittances and FDI. Through the inclusion of the Ethiopian government responses of stimulus spending, job protection and business support, the report evaluates the effectiveness of these measures for the economic recovery to pre-COVID-19 pathways. By using a macroeconomic multi-sectoral model, the study includes results at national (GDP, supply, demand, trade), sectoral (output and prices) and household (welfare) levels. The household food expenditure results are then included as income measures in a poverty analysis module to further characterise the effects of the pandemic on poverty headcount, gap and severity. In annualised terms, the modelling results show that the COVID-19 impacts could have been significant across all macroeconomic metrics had the government not intervened. The GDP would have decreased from pre-COVID-19 projections by -11.1% in 2019/20 and -6.7% in 2020/21, with severe implications for employment and household welfare. The government response consisting in increased spending (healthcare and food programmes) and salary payments to prevent job losses may have had an important role in improving the macroeconomic outcomes of the pandemic in 2019/20. Nevertheless, much of the aggregate recovery (GDP, employment and welfare) is driven by agriculture as output in most manufacturing, construction and services sectors continue to be affected by productivity shocks and low demand. Therefore, employment and output outside agriculture could still be below the pre-COVID-19 projections even when additional business support measures are included. Without government intervention, the poverty headcount would have increased by about 5% in total population. The government measures are projected to mitigate that effect to a large extent and to allow national poverty levels to reach pre-COVID-19 values in 2020/21 or to even fall below in case of an enhanced business stimulus package from the government. Nevertheless, poor urban households continue to be negatively affected and would require more targeted support.

  • Crowdsourced data reveals threats to household food security in near real-time during COVID-19 pandemic

    Year: 2020

    Authors: Adewopo, J; Solano-Hermosilla, G; Micale, F; Colen, L

    Journal: IFPRI blog

    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to multiple disruptions in food demand and supply, and while in general food systems have proven more resilient than many expected so far, the poor and vulnerable have been hit hardest. In this regard, food prices are a critical indicator. Most food price tracking systems aggregate data that may miss short-term price spikes in specific locations—information that could be used to target relief. Here, researchers from the European Commission's Joint Research Centre and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture describe the development of a crowdsourcing tool for collecting real-time local price data. They used it to capture food prices in locations in northern Nigeria during a 4-week pandemic lockdown period, showing important temporal and spatial price variations for staple foods. Based on their experience, they discuss the benefits and challenges, in emergencies and more generally, of crowdsourcing approaches for food prices.—John McDermott, series co-editor and Director, CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH).

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Developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, DEMETRA, is is a single-country, recursive dynamic CGE economic model, used to analyse policy scenarios on agricultural economics, food security, fiscal policy and water nexus issues in developing countries.

DEMETRA official page


The Farming System Simulator for Developing Countries (FSSIM-Dev) is one of the decision-making tools developed by the JRC to provide independent evidence-based policy analysis in the areas of food and nutrition security and sustainable agriculture, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa.

FSSIM-Dev official page


MAGNET (Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool) is a global general equilibrium model that has been widely used to simulate the impacts of agricultural, trade, land and bioenergy policies on the global economy with a particular focus on the impacts on land use, agricultural prices, nutrition and household food security.


ANSD - Senegal

The Agence Nationale de Statistique et de la Démographie (ANSD) of Senegal is an administrative structure endowed with legal personality and management autonomy and placed under the authority of the Minister in charge of Statistics.


The African Union (AU) is a continental body consisting of the 55 member states that make up the countries of the African Continent. It was officially launched in 2002 as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU, 1963-1999)


The AU is part of the coordinating body of the PANAP network


The West African Development Bank (BOAD) is the common development finance institution of the member countries of the West African Monetary Union (WAMU). It was established by an Agreement signed on 14 November 1973, and became operational in 1976. Member countries include Benin, Burkina, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

CIRES - Côte d'Ivoire

The mission of the Centre Ivoirien de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (CIRES) consists essentially in:

  • undertaking research activities concerning the economic and social problems of the Ivory Coast and the countries of the Sub-Region.
  • establishing ongoing relationships with as many public or private economic bodies as possible, and publish research on economic and social disciplines.

CNRA - Côte d'Ivoire

The National Agricultural Research Center (CNRA) of Côte d'Ivoire, provides a public research service with private-type management. It places at the heart of its actions, the sustainable increase in production and productivity in the agricultural and agro-industrial fields.

EIAR - Ethiopia

The Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) aspires to see improved livelihood of all Ethiopians engaged in agriculture, agro-pastoralism, and pastoralism through market-competitive agricultural technologies.


The Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) is the apex continental organization responsible for coordinating and advocating for agricultural research for development (AR4D). FARA serves as the technical arm of the Africa Union Commission on matters concerning agriculture science, technology and innovation.

FARA is part of the coordinating body of the PANAP network


The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is a non-profit institution
that generates agricultural innovations to meet Africa’s most pressing challenges of hunger,
malnutrition, poverty, and natural resource degradation. Working with various partners across
sub-Saharan Africa, we improve livelihoods, enhance food and nutrition security,
increase employment, and preserve natural resource

INRAN - Niger

The Niger National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRAN) is Niger’s principal agricultural research agency. Administered by the Ministry of Agriculture, INRAN conducts research on crops, livestock, natural resources, socioeconomics, and agricultural engineering.

INS - Côte d'Ivoire

Insitute National de la Statistique de la Côte d'Ivoire - National Statistical Institute of the Ivory Coast.

INS - Niger

The "Insitute National de la Statistique" of Niger coordinates the activities of the National Statistical System (SSN), produces statistical information following international standards, and ensures the conservation and, where appropiate, the dissemination of data colleted by all services of the SSN. It also promotes the development of methodologies and applied research in the fields of the collection, processing and dissemination of statistical data.

ISRA - Senegal

The Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA) aims for the design and implementation of research programs on crop, forest, animal and fish production and rural economy. It also looks for the creation of scientific knowledge, the generation of technological innovations and the development of decision-support tools for the improvement of the agricultural sector

Its "Bureau d'analyses macro-économiques" (BAME) is a specialized department s in economics and social sciences research, aiming at better understanding the transformations of the Senegalese rural world.

KIPPRA - Kenya

KIPPRA is the leading institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis in Kenya

MAG/EL - Niger

Ministère de l'Agriculture et de l'Élevage de la République du Niger - Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of the Republic of Niger


MINADER - Côte d’Ivoire

République de Côte d’Ivoire Ministre de l'Agriculture et du Développement Rural - Ministry of agriculture and rural development of the Ivory Coast.

PSI - Ethiopia

Policy Studies Institute (PSI) is a policy think tank established in November 2018 by the Ethiopian government, engaged in:

  • Economic, social and governance research and policy studies;
  • Bridging research and policymaking;
  • Capacity building and consultancy; and
  • Knowledge dissemination and exchange.

SUA - Tanzania

Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) is a public University based in Morogoro Tanzania. It is best known for offering courses and programmes widely in a field of Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Forestry, Animal Science, Wildlife Management, Tourism Management, Environmental Science, Food Science, Natural Resources, Nutrition, Rural Development, since its establishment.

Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development

The Institute conducts Research and Analysis on policy in the domain of Agriculture, Rural development, Natural resources and Environment. It aims at addressing micro and macroeconomic policy issues bearing on farming, transportation, processing, marketing, and trade of agricultural products and inputs; sustainability of agricultural systems and natural resources as well as the environment; and commercialization, income growth and food security.

Knowledge platforms

Africa Knowledge Platform

A gateway to data and information on Africa's social, economic, territorial and environmental development, developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.


Observartory for Africa Agriculture, powered by the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA)

Knowledge Centre for Global Food and Nutrition Security

We support the EU global commitment to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition through a dedicated, reinforced science-policy interface and a fostered inter-policy dialogue.

News on the web

News from the web

News gathered from the World Wide Web, with relevance for the PANAP network.

These news are grasped by the "Europe Media Monitor" (EMM), please wait some seconds while the white box is filled-in with the news.

EMM is updated every 10 minutes, 24 hours per day.

To know more on EMM please check this page

Policy pages

AU-EU partnership

The Africa-EU Partnership is the formal channel through which the European Union and the African continent work together. It is based on the Joint Africa-EU Strategy adopted by Heads of State and Government at the second EU-Africa Summit in 2007.


Find below the page dedicated to the PANAP launch event (EN/FR):

english   french

Africa-Europe alliance: a political declaration for a stronger partnership in agriculture, food and farming

On the occasion of the third African Union – European Union agricultural ministerial conference, African Union and the European Union representatives for the first time endorsed a Political Declaration, accompanied by an action agenda, with the overall aim of further strengthening the Africa-EU partnership in food and farming at all levels.


Download the document with the political declaration and action agenda:


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